Global warming challenges, including desertification and water scarcity, are changing the environment worldwide. Agriculture has to follow and adjust accordingly, to be able to make better food for an increasing population, in spite of worsening conditions. Such adjustment requires the use of various tools, e.g. genetics, irrigation and fertilization management, and new technologies to enable the use of saline water and wastewater. These will allow better adaptation of crops, to ensure water and nutrient availability and compatibility with higher temperatures and modified circumstances. At the same time, not only food quantity but also food quality needs to be accounted for, to maintain and improve food nutritional and health-related properties, and insure these are not negatively affected.