Several sustainable development goals (SDG) have direct linkages to environmental sustainability and climate change. In the context of environmental sustainability, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) is the custodian for 25 SDG indicators – across SDGs 6 (Gender equality), 8 (decent work and economic growth), 12 (responsible consumption and production), 14 (Life below water), 15 (Life on land) and 17 (Partnership for the goal). Of these, Earth observation has direct applications in SDGs 14 and 15 and can contribute significantly to other SDGs due to the potential space sector in offering societal and economic benefits. Although Climate change has linkages to many SDGs, SDG 13 is dedicated to climate action.
The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs offers (UNOOSA) international cooperation to contribute to these SDGs through its Space 2030 Agenda (https://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/outreach/events/2018/spacetrust.html): Space as a driver for peace. The United Nations Platform for Space-based Platform for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) promotes nature-based solutions for building disaster risk resilience since nature-based solutions not only combat disasters but also offer a wide range of ecosystem services. The Space for Climate Action initiative of UNOOSA helps to link space and climate experts with decision makers. The Space community recognises the contribution of gender to environmental sustainability and climate change through the Space4Women (https://space4women.unoosa.org) initiative that encourages women and girls to pursue Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and raises awareness about career opportunities and the importance of gender equality and empowerment in the space sector.